X-ray and Bone Densitometry (DXA) Analyses
Faxitron UltrafocusDXA equipped with 10 x 15 cm CMOS detector (Faxitron Bioptics, LLC, Tucson, AZ, USA). Automated calibration and exposure control. Quality control by use of two phantoms: one for bone mineral content (BMC) and another for total weight/fat percent.
X-ray analyses: skull shape, orbit, mandible, maxilla, teeth, vertebrae (cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, caudal), scapulas, clavicle, humerus, ulna, radius, ribs, pelvis, femur, tibia, fibula, digits, joints. DXA analyses: bone area, bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD) and vBMD from the whole mouse and from a region of interest (lumbar vertebrae).
Micro Computed Tomography (µCT)
- SkyScan1176 in vivo micro-CT (Bruker microCT N.V., Belgium): high-resolution X-ray scanner for in vivo 3D-reconstruction with details detectability down to 9 microns.
- SkyScan1172 in vitro micro-CT (Bruker microCT N.V., Belgium): high-resolution X-ray scanner with 11 Megapixel X-ray camera for in vitro 3D-reconstruction with details detectability down to 0.7 µm.
- 3D Suite software, NRECON (Bruker microCT N.V., Belgium).
Bone volume, bone volume fraction, bone surface, trabecular thickness, trabecular separation, trabecular number, trabecular pattern factor, cortical bone area, cortical thickness, cortical periosteal and endosteal perimeter, bone porosity, etc.
Markers of Bone Formation and Resorption
Tecan Infinite 200 (Tecan Deutschland GmbH, Crailsheim, Germany).
Measurement of markers of bone formation (e.g., osteocalcin, P1NP) or resorption (e.g., CTX-1, RANKL, TRAP5b) by ELISA (upon request).
Mechanical Bending: Three-Point Bend Test (long-term availability)
Servo-hydraulic test machine from Instron Model 3342
Measurement of the elastic-plastic bone material properties and fracture parameters.
Staining with alcian blue (cartilage) and alizarin red (bone)
Enables the observation of the endochondral ossification process in order to assess any cartilage or bone malformations.