Technologies

X-ray Analysis:

  • Equipment:
    Faxitron X-ray Model MX-20 equipped with a DC-12 digital camera (Faxitron X-ray, Illinois, USA). DX software with ImageAssistTM for image acquisition and analysis.
  • Parameters:
    Skull shape, Orbit, Mandible, Maxilla, Teeth, Vertebrae (cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, caudal), Scapulas, Clavicle, Humerus, Ulna, Radius, Ribs, Pelvis, Femur, Tibia, Fibula, Digits, Joints.

 

Bone densitometry:

  • Equipment:
    pDEXA Sabre X-ray Bone Densitometer (Norland Medical Systems. Inc., Basingstoke, Hampshire, UK; distributed by Stratec Medizin-technik GmbH, Pforz-heim, Germany).
  • Parameters:
    Total-body bone mineral density (BMD), partial bone mineral density (pBMD = BMD excluding skull), specific bone mineral density (sBMD = BMD related to the body weight), total-body bone mineral content (BMC), bone content (BMC related to the body weight), body length, body weight, fat mass, fat content (fat mass related to the body weight), bone-free lean tissue mass, lean content (lean mass related to the body weight).

 

Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT):

  • Equipment:
    Stratec XCT Research SA+ (Stratec Medizintechnik GmbH, Pforzheim, Germany).
  • Parameters:
    Total volumetric bone mineral density, content and area of the trabecular, cortical, and total bone. Measurement of the distal femoral metaphysis and diaphysis in vivo and ex vivo.

 

Micro computed tomography (µCT):

  • Equipment:
    • SkyScan1176 in-vivo micro-CT (Bruker microCT N.V., Belgium): high-resolution X-ray scanner for in-vivo 3D-reconstruction with details detectability down to 9 microns.
    • SkyScan1172 in-vitro micro-CT (Bruker microCT N.V., Belgium): high-resolution X-ray scanner with 11 Megapixel X-ray camera for in-vitro 3D-reconstruction with details detectability down to 0.7 µm.
    • InstaRecon® CBR software (InstaRecon, Inc. Illinois, USA distributed by SkyScan, Belgium): high-speed 3D reconstruction based on ultra-fast algorithms, which reconstruct images from 3D tomographic data 10 to 100 times faster than conventional methods.

  • Parameters:
    Bone volume, bone volume fraction, bone surface, trabecular thickness, trabecular separation, trabecular number, trabecular pattern factor, cortical bone area, cortical thickness, cortical periosteal and endosteal perimeter, bone porosity, etc.

 

Markers of bone turnover/metabolism and hormonal regulation:

  • Equipment:
    Tecan GENios Pro Plate Reader, Tecan Columbus Pro Plate Washer (Tecan Deutschland GmbH, Crailsheim, Germany). For analysis of the data, Magellan Software package (Version V 5.03) from Tecan was used. Magellan is a universal reader control and data reduction software for analysing data generated from microplate tests using Tecan measuring devices.

  • Parameters:
    Measurement of markers of bone metabolism and hormonal regulation like osteocalcin, N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP), C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I), RANKL, tartrate-resistant isoenzyme of acid phosphatase (TRAP5b) by ELISA.


 

Mechanical bending: three-point bend test:

  • Equipment:
    Servo-hydraulic test machine from Instron Model 3342

  • Parameters:
    Measurement of plastic and elastic stability or fracture parameters of bones.

 

Skeleton preparation:

  • Equipment:
    Staining with alcian blue (cartilage) and alizarin red (bone)

  • Parameters:
    Enables the observation of the endochondral ossification process in order to assess any cartilage or bone malformations.